Machar directs his ‘forces’ to assemble in cantonment sites

Machar directs his ‘forces’ to assemble in cantonment sites

South Sudan opposition leader Riek Machar has directed SPLA-IO forces to assemble in cantonment areas as soon as possible, as part of the peace deal.

“I want you to take the issue of cantonment very seriously. If you don’t report yourselves, they will count you out,” Machar told his supporters who gathered at a rally in Khartoum on Friday.

“Please report yourselves to any nearest cantonment sites.”

Under the peace deal, the parties are required to assemble their forces in cantonment sites to enable registration of personnel, weapons, screening, reorganization and demobilisation. The deal says all forces in cantonment sites shall receive non-military logistical supplies including food, shelter and access to medical care.

Machar, who will be reinstated as first vice president, emphasized the need for dissemination of the peace agreement to grassroots for citizens to understand the contents of the signed document.

“It is not good if normal citizens do not know what is written in the peace agreement,” he said.

The opposition leader pointed out that the peace agreement is lagging behind schedule, saying several technical committees have not yet been formed. “But we don’t want this to affect the agreement,” he said.

“This delay could affect the implementation of the agreement but we want to catch up,” he added.

The revitalized peace agreement signed in September will see the creation of a new transitional government in May 2019.

SOUTH SUDAN’s REVITALIZED AGREEMENT IS ON HEALTHY START AND HOLDING IT’S GROUNDS

SOUTH SUDAN’s REVITALIZED AGREEMENT IS ON HEALTHY START AND HOLDING IT’S GROUNDS

Fresh civil war erupted in Juba on 15 December 2013, causing heavy civilian casualties. The war spread to other parts of the country as the power struggle within the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) and took a nose dive into the military and the general public. As the war progressed, it took ethnic dimensions pitting the Dinka and Nuer residing largely in Juba. The war was predictable but the magnitude of the violence was unforeseen as it quickly spread from Juba, Bor, Malakal, Akobo, and Bentiu. There were revenge and counter-revenge from both sides of the conflict. Immediately, in January 2014, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) intervened to stop the violence and broker a negotiated peaceful settlement within the context of the conflict. Eventually, and on 12 September 2018, the South Sudanese political parties: the SPLM, SPLM IO and South Sudan Opposition Alliance (SSOA), signed the Revitalized Agreement on Resolutions of Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS). These parties to the R-ARCSS have so far shown their commitment to it as compared to the previous peace agreements (ARCSS 2015 in point) which ended up in a brutal violence and total failure.
The focus has now shifted to the implementation of the R-ARCSS. The R-ARCSS has provisions for eight months pre-transition leading to the formation of Transitional Government of National Unity (TGoNU). The TGoNU shall run for a period of three years under which a new constitution will be made and government structures put in place. There shall be institutional and security sector reforms that will make government small, effective and efficient. Reforms will be directed at the public sector but most importantly putting governance institutions in place. The implementation phase requires all parties to collectively pull in the same direction and ensure the process is carried out to a successful conclusion.

The immediate challenge is hence security. The security challenge is complex to deal with in a period of three years given the history of the liberation struggle within SPLM/A and lack of documentation on liberation cadres within the formal and informal military ranks. The process of creating a new South Sudan Defense Forces and the criteria of inclusion and exclusion is a negotiated agenda. It also carries with it political risks of more violence from those who might not be accommodated within the new People’s Defense Forces (PDF). Thus, security sector reforms must encompass vocational training and recruitment of cadres in other security agencies such as police, wildlife, prisons, and national security among others. Security sectors reforms also have both lateral and horizontal implications since the number of generals shall be drastically reduced and redeployment and training of others in military academies to take new roles within the restructured South Sudan People’s Defense Forces (SSPDF). The success of security sector reforms shall equally guarantee success in other sectors and state institutions.

Security sector reforms remain the most controversial and basic source of ensuring peace in South Sudan. The six national security services (SPLA, South Sudan National Police, National security intelligence, South Sudan National Prison, National Wildlife, and Fire Brigade) have to be restructured, reformed and professionalized. Above all, they have to be put under government administration for accountability and strict monitoring and supervision. In the past, the central focus has been the reconstruction and undertaking of security reforms solely focusing on SPLA instead of whole security sector reforms. Whereas there have been policy documents of security sector reforms such as the transformation program (2012-2017), very little has been achieved. Security agencies are largely a reflection and damping ground of SPLA and its affiliated militias. The starting point would be a comprehensive undertaking or review of the security sector to determine force strength, capacity, skills and competencies and then right size through alignment with resources and in a manner that takes into consideration emerging security threats in South Sudan and globally. The specific objective of undertaking sector reforms is to professionalize the six security agencies while making them independent of the executive and SPLA. Most importantly is to place them under civilian control. Finally, the general objective would be to strengthen civilian oversight role internally and externally. The security sector should be undertaken also as part of greater institutional reforms.

South Sudan faces serious humanitarian crises in diverse forms- Internally displaced persons, refugees, and over seven million facing starvation across the country. There are those physically challenged, injured, traumatized, and civilian deaths with attendants effects socially manifested in IDP camps where direct and indirect effects of the war are widespread and notable. The humanitarian tasks involve high social movement and mass resettlement of people. More often than not, diseases such as measles, cholera, and meningitis take the heavy toll on women and children in a distressful environment and conditions. What is more, it requires huge international support from humanitarian agencies to resettle refugees and internally displaced persons even as the state seeks a lasting solution to the problem largely associated with war and legacy of war.
The revamping of the economy is equally important if not the most important variable in realizing and implementing the peace process. Besides the oil economy that contributes to 98% of national revenue, other sectors of the economy have been neglected. Agriculture, animal husbandry, minerals, and tourism have the potential to transform the economy and create jobs for the youth. It is worth noting high youth unemployment and security implications, especially when coupled with high inflation and low productivity. Indeed, the revitalized peace agreement placed more emphasis on sharing oil resources and revamping the oil infrastructure at the expense of diversification of the economy and food security. Prudent management of oil resources and diversification of the economy would generate revenue that might transform sectors such as health, education, delivery of social services and infrastructure to link the country both horizontally and vertically.

The success of the peace agreement would depend also on the caliber of the constitution negotiated within the transitional period of three years. The constitution requires taking into consideration a federal system of government and control of resources by devolved units to allow the central government to concentrate on foreign policy, defense national security. The aim would be to introduce many centers of power and control of resources placed at the hands of the local populace. What is important however is not to weaken the state but allow the state to play its traditional role.

Finally, peace is expensive and require support beyond national borders. The peace agreement would need the support of the whole world and especially countries with significant investments and other interests in South Sudan. The primary focus should remain the interests of South Sudanese to realize and reap peace dividends.

By Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey

Igad to discuss South Sudan peace in Ethiopia

Igad to discuss South Sudan peace in Ethiopia

The Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (Igad) will meet in Addis Ababa on Friday to discuss the peace progress in South Sudan.

A brief email extended to the media on Wednesday afternoon indicated that the regional bloc’s Council of Ministers would meet in the Ethiopian capital.

“The 66th Extraordinary Session of the Igad Council of Ministers will convene on Friday, November 16, 2018 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. On the agenda are the implementation of the Revitalised Agreement of the Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan (R-ARCSS) and progress in Somalia,” Igad Programme Manager Abdullahi Busuri said.

Igad is keen to push the South Sudan signatories on their commitment to meet the implementation timelines.

The guarantors

The latest South Sudan peace deal was signed following a breakthrough in Khartoum by the Sudanese President Omar Bashir after months of negotiations.

President Salva Kiir and main opposition leader Riek Machar inked the deal on September 12 in Addis Ababa.
The entire peace agreement is under the Igad supervision.
The regional bloc authorised Sudan, Uganda, Djibouti and Somalia to be the guarantors of the South Sudan peace.

By JOSEPH ODUHA

Riek Machar in Juba, a sign of peace?

Riek Machar in Juba, a sign of peace?

Quite clear! A true statement by “the EastAfrican” newspaper, a sincere friend of South Sudan for all times of war and peace. Many people, out there do not know President Salva or Dr. Riek. They were born in peace, went to Sudan schools, learned English and Arabic and grew up into wars of liberation in the 1960s. It is from this point forward that Salva and Riek learned violence and war of self-defense.

The real one-stop violence, among South Sudanese elites, occurred for the first time in August 1983, when Anya Nya two broke up over self-determination for Southern Sudan and unified Sudan. The breakup of Anya Nya two gave birth to a very violent child: The Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM). The SPLA, military wing of the SPLM defeated the Anya Nya two. Some South Sudanese, many veteran politicians, lost their lives. From there on, the SPLM leadership continued in violence and political anarchy, a culture deeply rooted in communist orientations throughout the cool war, 1945 to 1991.

But, Salva and Riek were never and are not communists, if any, they were/are freedom fighters. They both fought for the right of self-determination and independence of South Sudan from Sudan. In this war, 2013-2018, Salva and Riek did not invite any foreign country or an international organization like the United Nations (UN) to take over South Sudan and govern it for ten years, though many leading politicians in the SPLM did betrayed the country.

This political behavior of “love, protect and fight for your country,” is installed in Salva’s and Riek’s nationalistic orientation. This installation of nationalism in them is inclusive of the use of violence in liberation and in self-defense. This is the violence syndrome orientation they have used to usher political power in the clear absence of democracy, an exercise common in countries where dictatorship is the bases of governance. This Revitalized Agreement on Resolution of Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS), if implemented “letter and spirit” as they have promised, then the violence and war syndrome could be counseled and reverted from the bullet to ballet.

As implemented, the R-ARCSS shall change the system of governance and government from dictatorship to democracy, where a government is changed by “the people for the people”. I am sure Salva and Riek will abide by freedom and rule of law.

It is in my opinion that, the R-ARCSS shall hold and peace and security will prevail beyond the next elections in 2021.

South Sudan rebel leader Machar back in Juba after two years

South Sudan rebel leader Machar back in Juba after two years

Ex-vice president Riek Machar returned for the first time since 2016 to take part in a peace ceremony.

South Sudan rebel leader Riek Machar has returned to the capital, Juba, more than two years after he fled the country after the collapse of a 2016 peace deal.

Machar, the former vice president, returned to Juba on Wednesday to take part in a peace ceremony.

Machar fled to neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo in 2016. He later travelled to South Africa, where he was held under house arrest until earlier this year.

Last month, he and President Salva Kiir signed a new peace deal in Ethiopia in the latest attempt to end the five-year civil war that erupted in the world’s youngest country in December 2013.

On Wednesday, Kiir said Machar’s imprisoned South African adviser, William Endley, and a rebel group spokesman, James Gatdet, would be released on Thursday as part of the peace deal.

Endley will be deported to South Africa upon release, Kiir said.

Machar’s previous homecoming in April 2016 was put off by wrangling over how many bodyguards he could bring with him and what weapons they would carry.

South Sudan gained independence from its northern neighbour Sudan in 2011 after a 22-year civil war pitting rebel groups against Khartoum.

Safety concerns

It was not immediately clear how long Machar would remain in Juba, as his aides have expressed concerns over his safety in the city.

“We are worried for his security in Juba, but the truth is here: we are for peace, and what we are trying to do is build trust,” Gabriel said.

Several thousand people have gathered for the ceremony at the John Garang Mausoleum, built in honour of the independence hero who was killed in a helicopter crash in 2005.

Among regional leaders in Juba for the ceremony were Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, Ethiopia’s newly appointed President Sahle-Work Zewde and Somalia’s head of state Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed.

Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni was also expected to attend.

Humanitarian crisis

Two years after gaining independence, South Sudan descended into civil war after Kiir accused his then-deputy, Machar, of plotting a coup.

Ethnically-charged fighting soon spread from the capital across the impoverished state, shutting down oil fields, forcing millions to flee and killing tens of thousands of people.

The conflict split the country along ethnic lines and has seen mass rape, the forced recruitment of child soldiers and attacks on civilians.

It has caused one of the world’s greatest humanitarian crises and wrecked the economy in a country which relies on oil production for the vast bulk of its revenues.

A power-sharing deal that returned Machar to the vice presidency was signed in 2015. But it collapsed a year later in a deadly battle that saw Machar flee into exile.

The United Nations and the African Union earlier this month appealed to the country’s warring parties to make concrete steps to implement the latest accord.

SOURCE: News agencies

Child soldiers of South Sudan

Child soldiers of South Sudan

by Andreea Campeanu

In South Sudan there are still 19,000 children in armed forces, with boys trained to fight and girls taken as “wives”.

Yambio, South Sudan – On the red dusty ground in Yambio, under a large mango tree, a group of thirty girls and boys, some wearing military cloths and some with guns next to them, sit in the shade eating biscuits while waiting for the start of the ceremony to release them from the army.

The US ambassador and other guests are coming from the capital Juba to attend the event.

They are part of the 900 children who were released from the armed forces in South Sudan in 2018, the country with one of the largest number of child soldiers in the world. The ceremony consists of them symbolically taking off the military clothes, and receiving blue UNICEF labeled notebooks and schoolbags.

According to the UN, there are still 19,000 children in armed forces in South Sudan, a number contested by the army. “We have concerns about the figures published by UNICEF. We don’t know how they came up with those numbers. Now it’s true that some other groups that were integrated in the SPLA had child soldiers among them. But our policy is clear: we don’t want child soldiers,” said Lul Ruai Koang, the spokesperson for the South Sudan’s People Defence Force (former SPLA). “We gave their names to UNICEF. In Pibor or Yambio, they have been demobilised. We facilitate the process. After, it’s their responsibility to help them.”

Many of the children in the ceremony have already returned to their communities before the official release. They received medical screenings, counseling and psychosocial support as part of their rehabilitation, and some were assisted to return to school, while others received vocational training. Their families were also provided with food assistance.

But across South Sudan and in refugee camps outside the country, there are children and youth who left or escaped from the armed forces but received no assistance and have not been through a rehabilitation program. Depending on age, boys are either used as porters, cleaners, or are trained to fight. Girls are often taken as “wives”, and often return in their communities with children.

“We see depression, anxiety. They have intrusive thoughts that come back. That can be triggered by something happening, but of which they have no control. That can affect their functionality,” says Rayan Fattouch, mental health specialist working in Yambio with Doctors Without Borders (MSF).

MSF is medicaly screening the children who were associated with armed groups. Part of it is the mental health aspect. They are dealing with children and young adults who are facing “moderate to severe trauma”.

“The child needs to feel embraced by his community. And that can change from one community to another, depending of the experiences they have been through. They have their own trauma,” said Fattouch.

 Reporting for this story was supported by a grant from the Pulitzer Center.

According to the UN, there are still around 19,000 children serving in armed forces across South Sudan. [Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera]

According to the UN, there are still around 19,000 children serving in armed forces across South Sudan. Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera
A 18-year-old boy from Yei. He said he was abducted and held by a militia aligned to the SPLA since the conflict started in 2013. 'They would raid villages', he said. 'We were given weed to smoke and alcohol (to drink), so that we don’t think about what they made us do.' He said he was treated rather fairly by the commanders and was given food to eat, but life in the bush wasn't easy. He managed to escape when the militia he was held by moved to Equatoria with SPLA troops. He took advantage of being near the border to escape to Uganda. [Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera]

A 18-year-old boy from Yei. He said he was abducted and held by a militia aligned to the SPLA since the conflict started in 2013. ‘They would raid villages’, he said. ‘We were given weed to smoke and alcohol (to drink), so that we don’t think about what they made us do.’ He said he was treated rather fairly by the commanders and was given food to eat, but life in the bush wasn’t easy. He managed to escape when the militia he was held by moved to Equatoria with SPLA troops. He took advantage of being near the border to escape to Uganda. Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera
A 15-year-old girl who was held by armed forces for a week. Originally from Mayendit, she was collecting firewood outside the Protection of Civilians (POC) site near Bentiu, in December 2017. 'Soldiers came to us, they had guns and uniforms. We all tried to run away, but they caught me.' They took her to Bentiu town, and kept her for a week. She was repeatedly raped. 'One soldier took me as a wife. But when he was away, the other soldiers would come to the house and do what they wanted with me. That man didn't care, he was mean to me, he would beat me and say I was useless. I was thinking to kill myself'. She now lives in the POC near Bentiu with her family, who is supportive but very poor. She's going to school and hopes to be able to complete her studies and forget about the past. [Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera]

A 15-year-old girl who was held by armed forces for a week. Originally from Mayendit, she was collecting firewood outside the Protection of Civilians (POC) site near Bentiu, in December 2017. ‘Soldiers came to us, they had guns and uniforms. We all tried to run away, but they caught me.’ They took her to Bentiu town, and kept her for a week. She was repeatedly raped. ‘One soldier took me as a wife. But when he was away, the other soldiers would come to the house and do what they wanted with me. That man didn’t care, he was mean to me, he would beat me and say I was useless. I was thinking to kill myself’. She now lives in the POC near Bentiu with her family, who is supportive but very poor. She’s going to school and hopes to be able to complete her studies and forget about the past. Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera
Augustino Ting Mayai was part of the Red Army in the Second Civil war that started in 1983 and lasted till 2005. In the early 1980s, the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) recruited and trained boys as young as 12. The child soldiers were called the Red Army. In 2013, the Red Army Foundation (RAF) was formed, an organisation dedicated to addressing social problems, especially among its own former members and South Sudan's youth. Mayai, a member of the Red Army Foundation, now holds a PhD in Sociology and is a Director of Research at the Sudd Institute and an Assistant Professor at the University of Juba’s School of Public Service. [Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera]

Augustino Ting Mayai was part of the Red Army in the Second Civil war that started in 1983 and lasted till 2005. In the early 1980s, the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) recruited and trained boys as young as 12. The child soldiers were called the Red Army. In 2013, the Red Army Foundation (RAF) was formed, an organisation dedicated to addressing social problems, especially among its own former members and South Sudan’s youth. Mayai, a member of the Red Army Foundation, now holds a PhD in Sociology and is a Director of Research at the Sudd Institute and an Assistant Professor at the University of Juba’s School of Public Service. Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera
Children walk outside the POC in Juba, South Sudan, home to more than 40,000 people. [Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera]

Children walk outside the POC in Juba, South Sudan, home to more than 40,000 people. Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera
A 16-year-old boy who was a bodyguard in the opposition group South Sudan National Liberation Movement (SSNLM) plays football outside the transit center ran by World Vision and UNI. [Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera]

A 16-year-old boy who was a bodyguard in the opposition group South Sudan National Liberation Movement (SSNLM) plays football outside the transit center ran by World Vision and UNI. Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera
A boy who was in an armed group learning carpentry at a vocational training center ran by UNICEF outside the city of Yambio. [Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera]

A boy who was in an armed group learning carpentry at a vocational training center ran by UNICEF outside the city of Yambio. Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera

Originally from Bentiu, this young man fled in December 2013 when the conflict broke out in his town. He went to a smaller town called Mayom, where the war had not reached yet. There he wanted to keep on going to school. But in April 2014, when he was 14, government soldiers came to the town and took him away. 'I was forced to be a soldier. Many people were taken that day. I knew that they were there looking for new recruits'. He was taken for training with other young men, to a military camp. 'They would beat up those who resisted'. After he managed to escape, he made his way to Juba, where he now lives. He last heard from his parents and brothers three years ago. 'War creates a lot of destruction, war kills people, he says. You are going backwards. But I hope that with studying, I can make progress.' [Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera]

Originally from Bentiu, this young man fled in December 2013 when the conflict broke out in his town. He went to a smaller town called Mayom, where the war had not reached yet. There he wanted to keep on going to school. But in April 2014, when he was 14, government soldiers came to the town and took him away. ‘I was forced to be a soldier. Many people were taken that day. I knew that they were there looking for new recruits’. He was taken for training with other young men, to a military camp. ‘They would beat up those who resisted’. After he managed to escape, he made his way to Juba, where he now lives. He last heard from his parents and brothers three years ago. ‘War creates a lot of destruction, war kills people, he says. You are going backwards. But I hope that with studying, I can make progress.’ Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera
The one-month-old baby girl of a mother, 16, who was held by rebel soldiers, is sleeping on a mat in their compound, outside Yambio. The mother was made a second wife for one of the soldiers, but other men were sleeping with her, too. She doesn’t know who the father is, but she loves the child. “My grand-mother welcomed me when I came back, and the child when she was born. But some neighbors were scared. They said I had the mindset of the people in the bush. I was made to kill and maybe I would do it again”. She’s learning tailoring but after, would like to go back to primary school. She says till today, she doesn’t dare to go back to the fields because she’s scared of being abducted again. [Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera]

The one-month-old baby girl of a mother, 16, who was held by rebel soldiers, is sleeping on a mat in their compound, outside Yambio. The mother was made a second wife for one of the soldiers, but other men were sleeping with her, too. She doesn’t know who the father is, but she loves the child. “My grand-mother welcomed me when I came back, and the child when she was born. But some neighbors were scared. They said I had the mindset of the people in the bush. I was made to kill and maybe I would do it again”. She’s learning tailoring but after, would like to go back to primary school. She says till today, she doesn’t dare to go back to the fields because she’s scared of being abducted again. Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera
An older woman with a family member at her home in Yambio. She welcomed into her home three of her grand-daughters who were kidnapped and held by a rebel group. [Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera]

An older woman with a family member at her home in Yambio. She welcomed into her home three of her grand-daughters who were kidnapped and held by a rebel group. Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera

Y, 18, in his home in the POC in Juba, where he has been living since January 2018. He was going to school in Malakal when the war started. He fled to a village in Fangak where his family is originally from. 'When the enemy attacked us, I decided to join because I was angry. They killed old people, children, disabled people who could not escape. One of my cousins was killed. I knew that if they reach our village, they would kill my family, destroy our properties. I thought, it's better if I die fighting them then let them kill my parents.' At the beginning of this year, he asked to go to Juba. 'I didn't want to be there anymore. The soldiers on both sides, it's not them, they could shake hands. But the big people make them fight.' [Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera]

Y, 18, in his home in the POC in Juba, where he has been living since January 2018. He was going to school in Malakal when the war started. He fled to a village in Fangak where his family is originally from. ‘When the enemy attacked us, I decided to join because I was angry. They killed old people, children, disabled people who could not escape. One of my cousins was killed. I knew that if they reach our village, they would kill my family, destroy our properties. I thought, it’s better if I die fighting them then let them kill my parents.’ At the beginning of this year, he asked to go to Juba. ‘I didn’t want to be there anymore. The soldiers on both sides, it’s not them, they could shake hands. But the big people make them fight.’ Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera
O, 16, from Leer, is reading in a makeshift home belonging to a family member in the Protection of Civilians site (POC) in Bentiu, where he''s been living for the last two years. He was outside the POC to buy charcoal, when he was abducted by soldiers and taken away in a pick-up car. 'There were only women and older men with me then, so they only took me. They tied me up and told me I was going to fight for them'. Next to Bentiu town, he stayed with about 40 other young men. 'We were told we were going to fight the rebels. They said we'd have the guns, so that the people would give us money and that the cattle we could take would be ours'. After about 10 days, he escaped and made his way back to the POC. He says he doesn't dare to go out of the perimeter since he was abducted. [Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera]

O, 16, from Leer, is reading in a makeshift home belonging to a family member in the Protection of Civilians site (POC) in Bentiu, where he”s been living for the last two years. He was outside  POC to buy charcoal, when he was abducted by soldiers and taken away in a pick-up car. ‘There were only women and older men with me then, so they only took me. They tied me up and told me I was going to fight for them’. Next to Bentiu town, he stayed with about 40 other young men. ‘We were told we were going to fight the rebels. They said we’d have the guns, so that the people would give us money and that the cattle we could take would be ours’. After about 10 days, he escaped and made his way back to the POC. He says he doesn’t dare to go out of the perimeter since he was abducted. Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera
'We see depression, anxiety. They have intrusive thoughts that come back. That can be triggered by something happening, but of which they have no control. That can affect their functionality,' says Rayan Fattouch, mental health specialist working in Yambio with Doctors Without Borders (MSF). [Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera]

‘We see depression, anxiety. They have intrusive thoughts that come back. That can be triggered by something happening, but of which they have no control. That can affect their functionality,’ says Rayan Fattouch, mental health specialist working in Yambio with Doctors Without Borders (MSF). Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera
Former rebel commander Abel Matthew Mbarza, now part of the govenrment forces, at his compound in Yambio. According to the UN, there are still 19,000 children in armed forces in South Sudan, a number contested by the army. [Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera]

Former rebel commander Abel Matthew Mbarza, now part of the govenrment forces, at his compound in Yambio. According to the UN, there are still 19,000 children in armed forces in South Sudan, a number contested by the army. Andreea Campeanu/Al Jazeera

Source – Al Jazeera