Today, 30 July 2005, is the Martyrs’ Day in the Republic of South Sudan, in Commemoration of Dr. John Garang de Mabior, Joseph Oduho and William Deng Nhial, their immediate colleagues and the two and a half million (2.500,000) Martyrs.
On this occasion, we Congratulate our President Salva Kiir Mayardit, and to convey to him that “the graceful blood of the millions of Martyrs” gave us the freedom, sovereignty, and independence among the world nations. In a mixed instincts of tears, screamings, mournings, and in smiles, happiness, and celebrations, we conclusively, inclusively and unanimously celebrate today the life and achievements of Dr. John and colleagues, with whom they led the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). Dr. John is survived by the SPLM, Chairman Salva Kiir, Deputy Chairman James Wani Igga, General Daniel Awet Akot, General Kuol Manyang Juuk and General Nhial Deng Nhial and the millions SPLM’s members, as we celebrate the Martyrdom. Nevertheless, we continue to search for a definite answer to the question: Who killed Dr. John Garang de Mabior?
It was on this Day, 30 July 2005, that Southern Sudan, the African Continent, and the World, lost the Human Liberation Leader, Dr. John Garang de Mabior, the Founder and the First Chairman and Commander In Chief of the SPLM and the SPLA, in the national related roles of the Liberation Leadership.
Dr. John Garang de Mabior, endowed with charisma, natural intelligence, persistence and professional consistency, he led South Sudan to freedom and independence through a deadly route, ups-and-downs, near-defeat and survivals, scenarios of perseverance and determination.
These difficulties and successes could be cited as follows:
(1) The battle of Bor against Sudan army on 16 May 1983, and successful withdrawal to Ethiopia;
(2) The battle between Anya Nya Two, led by Martyrs Akuot Atem de Mayen and General Gai Tut and the SPLM/SPLA, led by Dr. John. Dr. John won the battle, managed the crisis and reconciled with Anya Nya Two and integrated the SPLA;
(3) Beginning the liberation movement, SPLM/SPLA, he manifested, constituted and inspired the national principles and the ideology similar to indigenous African liberation movements in Tanzania, Uganda, Angola, Lumumba’s Congo in 1960s, Angola, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa, to liberate the whole Sudan and ideologically transform it into “New Sudan,” free of racial and religious segregation. He wanted secular and democratic Sudan, facing a huge Islamic-Arab opposition;
(4) From 1983 to 1991, the SPLM/SPLA almost succeeded to liberate the New Sudan, but unfortunately, the elements of counter-revolutionary agents interfered and divided the SPLM/SPLA, through the rebellion of Dr. Riek Machar and Dr. Lam Akol in August 1991, coupled with the overthrow of Col. Mengistu Haile Mariam’s Marxist-Leninist regime in Ethiopia and the formal collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR);
(5) These unfortunate events forced the SPLM/SPLA to leave Ethiopia for East African countries of Kenya and Uganda. The refugees from South Sudan also left Ethiopia, following the SPLM, another big setback was then imminent;
(6) Then, from 1991-1994, the real war by way of combined armies of Riek/Lam, the Sudan army under President Al Bashir, backed by Radical Islamists (Osama bin Laden was then in Khartoum) and Iran. These forces almost defeated the SPLM/SPLA;
(7) In 1993, the leadership of the SPLM/SPLA with few refugees were limited to the Southern bank of Aswa River on the main Nile in Nimule neighboring Gulu in Uganda. The enemy was then on the other side of Aswa River, ready to cross, but was hindered because the only bridge on Aswa was blown out by the SPLA. The SPLA dug in on the river. But lacked weapons aminations. “We are just awaiting Khartoum’s final defeat,” General Kuol Manyang to Dan Eiffe of the Norwegian People’s Aid, “Please look after refugees in two camps.” Kuol continued;
(8) Before the expected attacked from Khartoum forces for the final defeat of the SPLA, commanded then by the C-and-C, Dr. John, along with General Salva Kiir, General Kuol Manyang and General Lual Diing wol, Dan Eiffe and President Yoweri Museveni brought a big military reinforcement, in order to save Uganda from the Lord Resistance Army (LRA), save the SPLM/SPLA from defeat by Riek/Lam and Khartoum army and finally save South Sudan from being reoccupied. Dr. John, Salva Kiir, Kuol Manyang and Lual Ding and SPLA, defeated the Sudan army instead;
(9) It was from here, at Aswa battle that victory of SPLA could not be halted again. The Sudan call for peace, from 1994 to 2005, the USA, Norway, and UK truly intervene to stop war through the negotiated resolution of the conflict. The US managed to bring the good peace for both South Sudan and Sudan.
(10) The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) ended the war on 9 January 2005. On 9 July 2005, Dr. John Garang de Mabior, the Chairman of the SPLM, Commander In Chief of the SPLA, was sworn in as the First Vice President of the Republic of Sudan and President of Southern Sudan Government and SPLA C-in-C.
(11) The final trap came, and the First Vice President Dr. John Garang traveled to Uganda and by the returned trip, He mysteriously died in a helicopter crash inside South Sudan on 30 July 2005, just 21 days in political power. But the public wants a clear answer: Who Killed Dr. John?
Following the sudden death of Dr. John, the Deputy Chairman of the SPLM and Deputy C-in-C of the SPLA, Salva Kiir mayardit became the First Vice President and President of Government of Southern Sudan from August 2005 to 8 July 2011. On 9 July 2011, Southern Sudan became independent with elected Salva Kiir as the President of Republic of South Sudan and Dr. Riek Machar as the vice president and Deputy Chairman of the SPLM until 15 December 2013, as another rebellion, very similar to the Nasir rebellion of August 1991.
Like Dr. John, General Salva is also a great survivor. We hope that the ongoing Revitalization of the Agreement on Resolution of Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (ARCSS) is signed by the warring parties on 5 August 2018, to end the “senseless war” once and for all. AldoAjouDengAkuey