The Humanitarian Plights in Relations to the R-ARCSS Implementation Process

By Dr. Aldo Ajou Deng-Akuey

All that we, the people of the Republic of South Sudan hope, is “God saves the Revitalized Agreement on Resolution of Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS) of 12.9.2018.” Well on, with uncertain political will, weak national commitment and lack of trust and confidence within and among the politicians in the Presidency and R-TGoNU, just building concerns of cloudy frustrations. These frustrations upgrade yet, thriving skeptic mediators like Troika (the US, UK and Norway) and others who refrained from signing as witnesses on 12 September 2018 ARCSS, declaring their “wait and see.” These international hesitations, have, in fact, generated diminishing inthusiasm amd hopefulness amongst South Sudanese and African friends towards a successful implementation of R-ARCSS.

Nevertheless, South Sudanese resilience, perseverence and determination, makes it “forward ever and back never” to peace option to end the SPLM’s leaders “senseless war” of 15 December 2013 to 12 September 2018, although the long war insecurity, trauma, hunger, poverty and disseases are taking away thosands of lives nearly every day.

South Sudanese, representing their Greater Regions of Equatoria, Bahr Al Ghazal and Upper Nile, in the National Dialogue National Conference, on 3-15 November 2020, adhering to R-ARCSS and repremanding the R-TGoNU to implement it in good faith.
“To implement it in good faith” and inclusive of the 99% South Sudanese, young, middle age and old, who are for “give R-ARCSS a chance.” A chance they need to insure the Country’s National Unity, build up the social, political and economic infrastructure in order to improve our National security in all fields.
While we await the R-TGoNU to make the R-ARCSS a workable programme, the peace linkages between the Executive, the incoming Revitalized National Transitional Legislature (R-NTL), Revitalized Judicial Authority (R-JA) and the public/civil society, must be established and connected to the ongoing peace process.
The humanitarian plight and basic rights in this country, have been soaked into a very unpecedented chaotic mess, which must be given special attention by the R-TGoNU, along with the R-ARCSS’s implementation process. The first among these are the ongoing insecurity in Greater Regions of Equatoria, Bahr Al Ghazal and Upper Nile, envolving cattle restling, tribal fights, hunger and poverty.

And for internally displaced persions (IDPs) and the refugees in neighbouring countries and furhter diaspora, to come back home as soon as the persisting insecurity has changed and safe for free movements, freedom of expression and assembly, thus insuring Pan African democracy (visit Tanzanian model) and the rule of law. This performance, if done, shall make it possible for IDPs and refugees to return home and effectively participate in overall development of the country.

In my opinion, the R-TGoNU is now the Government for peaceful change. It has replaced the contentious TGoNU of President Salva Kiir in accordance with the R-ARCSS. This Government, along with political leaders involved, should be seen to embrace democracy and the rule of law. People need peace, freedoms, democracy and the rule of now in order to make democratic elections attractive for change.

Dr. Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey
Juba, South Sudan


Accountable means liable to acount for one’s action (see Advanced English Dictionary).

Accountability: A noun, on which nearly all politicians in Africa, assume that they know its meaning. Its meaning is not very clear to African political leaders. It is actually a significant basic obligation for government executives to possess and acknowledge the necessity of administrative accountability and legal interpretation of the law and its enforcements. Ultimately, acountableness relies on democratically elected parliament (see the US, British or France parliaments), where checks and balaces prevail in earnest. With African “conundrum” and their noecolonially adopted systems of governance from former colonial Britain and France, there has been a ready lost of African administrative traditions.

This resulted to ignorance, confusion and bewilderness to absorb alien and randomly borrowed democracies, authoritarianisms, autocracies or Russian and Chinese communist dictatorship. It is time for Africa to create its own patern of Pan-African liberal democracy and the rule of law.

This article, though less comprehensive, focuses on African governments’ failure to contain and sustain legal accountabilities. Accountability in all deliberations, deliveries of social services and economic functions of a government, has been the main cause of African leaders’ failure. This word “accountability” therefore, points to political administrative accountability by governments, without prejudice to legal procedures against individual executives.

The checks and balances (see the US Congress) upgrade share responsibilities among the three legs of constitutional governance: (a) the Executive; (b) the Parliament; and (c) the Judiciary. This system of government is obliged to commit to parliamentary accountability or face legal procedures before a court of law, upgrate supervision, law enforcement, good conduct and good governace.

In democracy, an independent Judiciary is responsible for the rule of law, enforcing an effective application of law to “see justice to be done” for all citizens without prejudice or exception of “no one is above the law.” This principle of justice therefore, is only saved in liberal democracy where human freedoms prevail over all variants system of government: being dictatorships, authoritarianisms, autocracies or communist oriented proliteriate dictatorship. However, Africa is stuck in conundrum of which it is responsible to random adoption for alien system of government. African traditional administration, cultural indigenous rights existed long before Americans or British (see Egyptology and archealogist findings in Egypt and Sudan). However, Africa has not lost its vision on look back to its origin. It is time to own our Africanness, recover our past and strenthen the Pan-African democracy, modernise and developed suitable system government that could upgrate Africa to world leadership stage. This move shall end African dependency on foreign bullying and economic exploitation.

I think the African liberators, including Dr. John Garang de Mabior, General Salva Kiir and their colleaques in arms had succeeded in the “arms liberations movements in the first phase.” They had tremendous Africans war efforts abilities to free the continent through deadly arms struggle and obtained the independence “we deserve.”

Nonetheless, these liberators, all arms liberated countries utterly failed to govern the countries they liberated. They all failed to deliver freedom dividens by all means, let alone social developments, provision of essential services to their people. Thus liberated Africa failed the mission of good governance since the content became free and independent from 1960s. The big research question is: why did Africa liberators succeed in arms liberation struggle and failed in utterly to govern its people and protect national interests?

Accountability does not apply effectively sufficiently in countries like Russia and china, Kingdoms such as Saudi Arabia or Iran and any authoritarian rule. Africa lives within the dichotomy of the two systems, dictatorship and democracy, both of which are foreign to African traditions and culture.

Now comes African democratic, military dictatorship and communist oriented liberation movements conundrum. There are few African countries which try to practice Westminster democracy, but the culture of Britain (UK) does not go down with Africa. One of many reasons why Westminster democracy is an utter failure. Military dictatorship is failure in Africa and therefore outlawed by African Union (AU). The system of government that could end conundrum and avoid bewilderness, is the Pan-African socialist ideology, a system which is a symbolic democratic success for Africa. Pan-African democracy is a success model in Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Zambabwe, South Africa, Namibia, Angola, Rwanda, Uganda etc,. Africa must pickup its liberal democracy from the Pan-African Traditional/cultural practices along with socialist ideological theories and practices. It is Pan-African ideology that may rid us of “conundrum” and assumption to good governance. In doing so, Africa shall rise up to its responsibilities and automatically embrace the logics of accountability and the rule of law as the main scientific philosophy of good governance.

By Dr Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey.

Dr Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey is the Chairperson and Publisher at The Nile Explorer company limited.

You can get a copy of the Nile Explorer Magazine online.

To download visit

What is the hot topic of the day?

The hot topic of the day is about the SPLM. Fears are being expressed by the leaders of the SPLM, telling the world that “we have failed!” Sound good enough, since the chaos and mounting insecurity threaten the national livelihood.

It is not too late if the SPLM pulls itself together, from Buma to national level and revisits its national achievements, changes its politico-militarism and converts to liberalism in order to lead the change from dictatorship to liberal democracy and the rule of law.

The Chairman of the SPLM, Salva Kiir Mayardit, should call the Liberation Council, not latter than April/May 2021, reorganizes the Party in order to coop up with modernization of the political land escapes.

Rebellions by the SPLM leaders must be contained and stopped because it is overdue. The SPLM is fully being infiltrated by the main enemies of our country, from the SPLM IO and members of the defunct NCP, escaping their political heat from Khartoum, Sudan.

SPLM can continue and re-emerges strong, determines to win the expected general elections in 2024, God willing.

In this ongoing R-ARCSS, it’s R-TGoNU, Presidency and States Governments, the SPLM executive positions must be filled by its competent leaders.

As we speak, the SPLM is being intentionally infiltrated and weakened. Let’s take charge of our party, build liberal democracy and stop disorganized political emigrants for good.

Written by Dr. Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey

Dr Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey is the Chairperson and Publisher at The Nile Explorer company limited.
You can get a copy of the Nile Explorer Magazine online. To download visit

Repudiation of all JCE documents forged

This statement repudiates all documents forged in the JCE’s name by unknown social media pirates who want to incriminate or confuse the responsible security officials to take up JCE. These documents belong to people who can be traced. Please read below.
Dr. AldoAjouDeng-Akuey


By Dr. Aldo Deng-Akuey

Addressing the Graduates from the military college in 1994, Dr. John Garang de Mabior, within a long lecture, had this to say, “when the SPLM gets political power in New Sudan, things shall be different from the SPLM/SPLA war efforts we are undergoing. The Government program shall be different in designation and provision of social development and delivery of services. The Government shall provide money to build roads, schools, and hospitals. We must know that a government, any government worldwide, does not possess ready-printed money in stores, though our people believe that a government has money stored in big public stores to be freely handed out to people. That image is false. The government depends on taxes paid by the citizens and from all fields of private industries. If there are no taxes, then the government, per se, shall not function or deliver any services.”

As Dr. John correctly predicted, South Sudanese believe that there is a lot of free money in-store of the National Bank of South Sudan, owned by the Ministry of Finance and other private banks for a takeaway. South Sudan’s economy is very sick now, and requires a very speedy treatment, though we had had hiccoughs since 2005.

As we speak, the economic situation of South Sudan is in further decline: The Revitalized Transitional Government of National Unity (R-TGoNU) has authoritative devices and should fix it!
But, with hind eyes, it is quite a fact of history that the Republic of South Sudan was born out of a deadly civil war between Khartoum and Southern Sudan, from 1955 to 2005. The long war killed 2.5 million South Sudanese and destroyed every square of land and every property on its face.

Fortunately, not luckily, the SPLM prevailed and, in 2005, liberated the country and declared its independence on 9 July 2011. South Sudan inherited no assets, or financial reserves from Khartoum, though it inherited the land and primarily developed of 10% of petroleum reserves, Khartoum couldn’t leave us alone to administer it.

In 2012, the oil production was closed down following the conflict with Khartoum over the oil conduit pipeline, from the oil fields of South Sudan to Port Sudan. This crisis was followed up with rebellion in 2013. The 98% national revenue was now gone. The country then and the resilience South Sudanese had no any other means rather than hand-to-mouth-economic life.

Many South Sudanese, internally and externally, say the economy has been mismanaged by corrupt “Dinka Government and Jieng Council of Elders (JCE). Less, the critics don’t refer to Mother SPLM and its “break-away” wings SPLM IO and SPLM Leaders, the Former Detainees (FDs), in order to charge them against the “2013-2018’s “senseless war” and the main reasons that led to the economic break-down and eventual collapsed.
Genuine professional critics correctly believe that the economics of South Sudan suffered first, from ignorance, political anarchy within the ruling SPLM, Government’s mismanagement, corruption, Troika (the US, UK, and Norway) withdrawal of economic aids, the Khartoum’s sabotage and the recent war of 2013-2018. Now that the war has ended, what next?

What next is to commit to the new page: The 12 September 2018, Revitalized Agreement on Resolution of Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS). The Presidency and R-TGoNU must take full charge, in accordance with the R-ARCSS and the Constitution, close the recent past and implement concurrently, all the chapters within the agreed timetable by the parties and mediators led by IGAD, AU and the UN.

In my opinion, the South Sudanese, without prejudice to the Presidency and R-TGoNU, should focus on and follow up the process leading to a successful and smooth implementation of R-ARCSS, “in letter and spirit.” Blames and counter blames are bygones, that shall not bail out the country and the suffering citizenry of South Sudan, from the accumulated destruction and chaotic mess we have alone inflicted on ourselves and the country. Let’s focus and concentrate on the peaceful resolution of our conflicts.

Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey,

Martyrs Day Commemoration

The Republic of South Sudan’s MARTYRS DAY Commemoration (30 July 2005-30 July 2020), that is the fifteenth anniversary!
The word martyr means: one who sacrifices, has sacrificed, sacrificed, his/her life, his/her station, or what is of great value to him/her, for the sake of principle, sustain a cause.
We in the Republic of South Sudan, we critically vision, remember and recall the moment, the successful political environment, circumstances and time in which the Chairman of the SPLM, the commander in chief of National Army, SPLA, and then First Vice President of the Republic of Sudan and President of the strongest autonomous region of Southern Sudan.
Dr. John Garang de Mabior signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) on 9 January 2005, in Nairobi, appointed as the First Vice President of Sudan on 9 July 2005 and Killed on 30 July 2005, thus recording to have lived only for seven months of the CPA.
The Martyr of South Sudan, African, and the world died for a just cause as defined above. He converted the definition of “the problem Southern Sudan” that guided the first war of 1955-1972, as “the Problem of Sudan” and qualified it to mean that “Sudan is for Sudanese.” He denounced the “Arab minority ruling clique in Khartoum to give up racism and Islamic Sharia” for transformed NEW SUDAN for Unity, Equality, Justice, liberty and the rule of law.
Dr. John Garang, William Deng Nhial, Joseph Oduho, Samuel Gai Tut, Akuot Atem, Gordon Mortat Mayen, Kerubino Kuanyin, William Nyuon Beny, their immediate colleagues, and the two and a half million Martyrs along with heroes, heroines ane thousands of widows and the living with disabilities.
The Survivors, of the longest liberation war in the world, led by President Salva Kiir Mayardit and the First Vice President Riek Machar Teny, must, I repeat must, look back, beyond the independence declaration on 9 July 2005 and in order to make peace the capital priority and correct the mess and chaos we have alone incurred on our people and the country, from 15 December 2013-2018. Thus using the R-ARCSS to bail out the country and her aggrieved citizenry.
God save us and South Sudan!

My Opinion: Olony Crisis

Signed on 12 September 2018, by President Salva Kiir Mayardit and First Vice President Riek Machar Teny, was/is the Revitalised Agreement on Resolution of Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS). R-ARCSS has been pushing itself peacefully, then and now, from 12 September 2018, all the way to anchor at the port of Atar, the domain of General Olony, on 12 July 2020. Nearly after one year in skeptical peace, we are alerted to stop over and watch the tug of war between the SPLM and SPLM IO over SPLM IO’s nominee, Olony, for President Salva Kiir to indorse and appoint him as governor of Upper Nile state or otherwise.
Well, the culture of disagreements over allocations, sharing portfolios from the Presidency down the line of institutions, establishments of new ministries and appointments of ministers and governors, has real robbed valuable time from the implementation flow, though Olony crisis is far from over.
If Olony crisis ends peacefully, being the wish of majority of South Sudanese, the tug of war between the two political leaders, Salva and Riek, I assume, shall resume over formation and appointment of members to both houses of the National Legislature: Council of States and National Legislative Assembly. This may take another six months, that would amount to two years.
Nevertheless, let’s say, our obligations and committed to R-ARCSS implementation “in letter and spirit,” is an oath to “survive as a nation or disappear into Limbo” like Somalia, Lybia or Biafra.
In case we shall be obliged to hold onto the transition in order to transform the legitimate sovereign institons: the national security, unified National Army, the economy, social desipline, democratic institutions along with liberties and freedoms and binding Federal constitution, acceptable to all nationalities that stakehold the country. More time is needed to deliver this country to the coming future generations.
Having stated the commitment to R-ARCSS, strong decisions must be taken by the R-TGoNU to attend to the service of the homeless South Sudanese: 6 million displaced internally and externally in the neighbouring countries and the half of the population is in the bondages of hunger, diseases (and COVID-19 killer) and in chains of poverty. More public attention must be given to citizens in order for them to restore hope the deserve for future, though they have already lost hope for better future.
In my opinion, the leaders are not committed to peace and security for their country and in relations to Africa and the world peace and security. The leaders are also resistance to true reconciliation and forgiveness in order to restore the trust and confidence they need to do collective public duty for the people and their country. Let’s take serious awareness of these leaders and their genuine commitment to this nation. They are likely to go back to war again or definitively fail the country.
By: Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey (PhD)