By Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey
Until 1917, the world before Jesus Christ (born 2018 years ago), Prophet Mohamed (born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia and died on 8 June 632 AD in Medina, Saudi Arabia) and President Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), was not divided into blocks or ideological camps.
The world was ruled by Emperors-such as Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire etc., Kings and the like autocracies. Human liberties, freedoms, democracy and the rule of law, were unheard of. The citizens were subjected to extraction and exploitation of one man and his family. In Germany, Karl Max (1818-1883) and Friedrich Angels (1820-1895), theoretically formulated a socialist ideology to compete with one autocracy, authoritarianism, exploitation and enslavement of human by human.
Karl Max (1818-1883) & Friedrich Angels (1820-1895)
These medieval systems were then subjected to the emerging revolutionary movements in the United Kingdom, UK, (1688-1689), France (1789-1799), the United States of America, USA, (1775-1783) and Russia in November 1917. The first three revolutions had similar principles, dedicated to the protection of the unalienable human liberties, freedoms, democracy, and the rule of law. Wherelse Russian revolution trended for communist proletarian dictatorship.
Thus on 8 March to 7 November 1917, Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924), effectively overthrew Tsar Nicholas 11 (1868-1918), the Monarch who ruled Russia from 1894 to 1917. The Russian revolution of 1917 dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union (Wikipedia). The Soviet Union emerged as a serious challenge to liberal democracies in UK, France, the USA and their allies in Western Europe. The Soviet Union expanded and swiftly engulfed most of Eastern Europe. This revolution introduced, for the first time in history, the ideological dichotomy between Western and Eastern Europe from 1917 to 1991, the time in which the war between capitalist liberal democracy and communist proletarian dictatorship began and ended.
The two ideologically emerging blocks, Eastern and Western Europe, strongly divided the world in terms of politics, economics, social fabric, and the arms race. Besides this ideological dichotomy between the two parallel blocks, there was a third block of powerful fascists dictatorship in Germany and Italy, led by Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), and Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) respectively. Both men were fierce fascists dictators that posed the security threat, not only for Europe but for the whole world, starting with first world war of 1914 to 1918. Eventually, Adolf Hitler ignited the Second World war by invading Poland from the West. Equally, Russia reacted and attacked Poland from the East. This was the root cause which, unquestionably, led to the second world war of 1939-1945.
Soldiers Fight in World War 2
In 1939 the developed world divided and faced themselves in an unprecedented war ever fought on the planet earth. The USA, UK, France, China and international allies joined Russia in the war against the fascists Germany, Italy, Japan and their allies too. The war lasted for six years running. Sixty million, soldiers and civilians, were killed and more hundreds of million were wounded. The war ended after liquidation of Adolf Hilter, Bonito Mussolini and total defeat and occupation of Germany, Italy, Japan, and allies worldwide. The war ended effectively in 1945.
As the war ended, there was a need for the Allies, victors of the second world war, led by the USA, the UK, France, Russia, and their Allies in the war against Germany and its allies, decided to call for “the United Nations Conference on International Organisation (UNCIO), a Convention of delegates from 50 nations. The Conference took place from 25 April to 26 June 1945 in San Francisco, California (Wikimedia).” This Conference also reviewed the Charter of the League of Nations which was formed after the first world war 1918, to cater for international peace and security. But the League of Nations failed to stop the second world war,1939-1945. The 50 delegates from fifty Allied countries plus Poland, whose delegate was delayed because of engagement in elections, signed the present United Nations (UN) Charter, a name that was suggested by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945), Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969) and Winston Churchill (1874-1965).
Iranian President Hassan Rouhani & UK Prime Minister Theresa May
Under the new Charter, the United Nations got fully established in 1946, thus ending the devastating war against the international fascism. But the ideological divide between capitalist West and communist East of Europe, led by the USA and Russia respectively, persisted and established what became known as the cold-war (1946-1991). The cold-war ended 1991, thus leaving the USA as the only world single leader, in terms of economic and military power. But, as the saying goes that “history repeats its self,” seems to occur. In fact, history is about to repeat itself, either as a physical-war or a cold-war.
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan & French President Emmanuel Macron
A physical-war or cold-war may return. But, since Al Qaeda Radical Islamic movement, led by Osama bin Laden (1957-2011) attacked the New York International Trade Center on 11 September 2001 (9/11), the US went to war, within and outside America, in pursuit of Radical Jihadist, who has sworn to destroy America, Christianity, and Judaism. Lately, Russia has escalated what looks like a renewal of physical or cold war. Now Russia, Iran, and Turkey have decided to defend Hafiz Al Saad of Syria, depicting as one of their allies.
On 10 April 2018, the US, UK, and France reacted over the use of chemical weapons by Assad’s regime against the civil society in Syria. They sent missiles to Syria, destroying chemicals targets. Russia says it will answer the missiles. If it does, then it could amount to an intensified war, similar to the war going on in Yemen. The war in Yemen demonstrates the real components and contenders to coming war. The West and its allies led by Saudi Arabia-Egypt and the Islamic moderates in the Middle versus Russia-Iran and Radical Jihadists in the world. This war will be fought in the Middle East, specifically in the Arab-Persian Gulf. The war will end here, but the cold war will reconvene and continue unabated between Russia and it’s Jihadist radicals and the western support to Muslim moderates.
In conclusion, the World Wars, first and second, in 1914-1918 and 1939-1945, respectively, in conformity and similarity to what happened in Poland 1939, when Germany invaded Poland from the west and Russia attacked Poland from the East, thus building up the third World war to its effects. Now, with Yemen, Saudi Arabi- Egypt in South Yemen and Iran in North Yemen, both backed by the USA and Russia respectively, the third World war is on practically physically, in proxy or already posing the war-coldness in the making.
By Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey Postgraduate Student (PhD), Philosophy of Political Science, Mku, Kenya