By Dr. Aldo Ajou Deng-Akuey
The Intergovernmental Agency for Development (IGAD), backed by the African Union (AU) and UNSC) with high level support by Troika (the US, UK and Norway), mediated the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), 2005, between Khartoum and Southern Sudan (SPLM V NCP) of Dr. John Garang and General Al Bashir respectively.For smooth implementation of the CPA, the UNSC put in place, the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) to keep security eye on Sudan and Southern Sudan. The UNMIS peacekeepers ran Sudan from 2005 to 2011. As South Sudan gained and declared its independence, on 9 July 2011, the UNMIS brokeup, thus creating a separate UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). Since then, the UNMISS has been representing UNSC in the Republic of South Sudan. It is here and was here in South Sudan, when the war broke out among the SPLM leaders on 15 December 2013. What role did the UNMISS play to prevent war, freshly breaking out between and among South Sudanese?
The UNMISS, led by Elda Johnson who was aware of deadly political power struggle within the leadership of the then ruling SPLM. The UNMISS failed the peacekeeping in South Sudan from 2011-2013; what a shame!Conducting his fellowship lectures this year, 2020, professor Mohamoud Mandani of Makerere University, who was also a member of AU investigation committee, led and chaired by President Obasanjo of Nigeria, blamed and cretically criticised the UNMISS and Troika (the US, UK and Norway} to have failed the South Sudan by allowing war to occur. He charged the Troika and UNSC of a “shameful failure.” He also criticised the idea of a criminal court (hybrid court), discribing it as a coverup for their shame. He said so because he defined the war, 2013-2018, as a political conflict that should be resolved politically by providing only political justice, disassociated to criminal justice as the troika and UNMISS hold. So far and since 2018, the ceasefire has been holding, though some occurrances of guns’ killings and individual shootings to kill, have been the experience of the days and months that followed the signing of R-ARCSS. And, in reality, the parties in agreement were able to implement and form the “Revitalised Transitional Government of National Unity (R-TGoNU) as stipulatedly prescribed by the R-ARCSS, since 22.2.2020, just over one year now.With R-ARCSS’s implementation process moving forward, though slowly, there are indications demonstrating that the parties in the R-TGoNU are significantly positively finding their way forward. They have now formed the States’ governments, the National and states’ Parliaments, the hybrid courts, the constition draft commission and starting preparatory measures to conduct the national census. With such a move, the Join Monitoring and Evaluation Committee (JMEC-representing IGAD & AU) and UNMISS (UNSC representative), should be seen smiling in approval of the steps the R-TGoNU is taking.
In my reading and opinion, the Troika is not ready to bail out the people of South Sudan from this deadly crisis of choatic insecurity, the war that has killed 400,000 citizens, internally displaced millions, externally displaced millions as refugees, and six million more starving to death. As we speak, UNMISS is the custodian of the IDPs camps in South Sudan. It is now time for people of South Sudan, the R-TGoNU and friends of South Sudan to confront the UNSC and Troika to get out of South Sudan if they have nothing humanitarianly good to save the dying South Sudanese.
Dr. Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey,
Juba, South Sudan.
NB. Not thoroughly edited.